How convergent are perennial daisies in mediterranean-type climates? part 1

INTRODUCTION

Mediterranean-type climates have warm, dry summers and cool, rainy winters (e.g. https://en.climate-data.org/north-america/united-states-of-america/california/sacramento-1460/).

Such climates occur in isolation on several continents (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mediterranean_climate#:~:text=A%20Mediterranean%20climate%20%2F%CB%8Cm,climate%20type%20is%20most%20common.).

According to ecological and evolutionary principles, organisms can be expected to produce similar forms and functions in similar environments, regardless of their phylogenetic origins.

On this basis, plants are predicted to be adapted to mediterranean-type climates in similar ways, in the various floras of the world.

One of the best families for testing this prediction is daisies (Asteraceae, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asteraceae).

This is because daisies

  • are particularly dispersible by wind, owing to the typical, anemochorous (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seed_dispersal) nature of their fruits,
  • have proven to be particularly adaptable, with extreme phylogenetic plasticity, on oceanic islands beyond the reach of other families of plants, and
  • are the only family known to encompass the full range from succulent leaves to hard, dry, lignified leaves (sclerophylly), from geophytes to trees, and from aquatic to desertic specialisation.

In other words, daisies are exceptionally widespread and adaptable.

Because of the dispersibility of daisies, the chances are that any local ecological patterns are not merely the result of accidents of evolutionary history, phylogenetic constraints, or the isolation of landmasses. I.e. in the case of daisies, any regional differences, within the category of mediterranean-type climates, are likely to show real ecological differences.

So, is it true that the daisies in the various regions of mediterranean-type climate are approximate 'mirror-images' of each other?

LISTS OF THE DAISIES IN THE VARIOUS REGIONS

Many daisies are annual (and adapted to semi-desert or disturbed ground). I have excluded these from this study, because there are so many perennial daisies under mediterranean-type climates that, were annuals to be included,

  • the lists would be unmanageably large, and
  • the patterns of adaptation would be obscured rather than clarified.

For example, many of the spp. of daisies indigenous to California are annual and/or restricted to the semi-arid to arid climate, and thus excluded from this study.

The following shows the various genera and spp. of perennial daisies in the various regions, based on observations in iNaturalist.

A problem in compiling these lists has been that many genera include both perennial and annual/biennial spp.

In several cases, I have suspected that a given species is annual/biennial, which would be disqualifying in this series of Posts. I have marked these with the designation 'Annual?' In such cases, dear readers, please help to refine these Posts by giving me your verdicts.

California is anomalous, in that the mediterranean-type climate extends to beyond 45 degrees of latitude. In Chile and Australia, the comparative value is 37 degrees. South African readers can visualise the latitudinal difference between 45 and 37 degrees as equivalent to the distance from Pretoria to Port Elizabeth.

In view of this anomaly, I have excluded the daisies in northernmost California and southern Oregon.

CHILE

Acrisione
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/790913-Acrisione-denticulata

Ageratina
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/509342-Ageratina-glechonophylla

Archidasyphyllum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1241356-Archidasyphyllum-diacanthoides (stem-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1241357-Archidasyphyllum-excelsum (stem-spinescent)

Aristeguietia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/715331-Aristeguietia-salvia

Baccharis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/716801-Baccharis-concava
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/630561-Baccharis-linearis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/861001-Baccharis-macraei
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/866831-Baccharis-paniculata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/874161-Baccharis-racemosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/905030-Baccharis-rhomboidalis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/606718-Baccharis-sagittalis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1254224-Baccharis-vernalis

Bahia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/557705-Bahia-ambrosioides

Chaetanthera (see https://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de/11538/1/Davies_Alison.pdf)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/871675-Chaetanthera-chilensis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/873742-Chaetanthera-glandulosa

Chaptalia
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/556727-Chaptalia-exscapa

Chuquiraga
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/636301-Chuquiraga-oppositifolia

Encelia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/335463-Encelia-canescens

Flourensia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/563825-Flourensia-thurifera

Gochnatia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/852104-Gochnatia-foliolosa

Gutierrezia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/948568-Gutierrezia-resinosa

Haplopappus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/705287-Haplopappus-foliosus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1062524-Haplopappus-chrysanthemifolius

Leucheria
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1063326-Leucheria-hieracioides

Micropsis
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1064316-Micropsis-nana

Mikania
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/874461-Mikania-mendocina

Moscharia
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/793686-Moscharia-pinnatifida

Mutisia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/747521-Mutisia-acerosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/794132-Mutisia-ilicifolia (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/429196-Mutisia-spinosa (foliar-spinescent?)
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/746906-Mutisia-subulata

Noticastrum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/855068-Noticastrum-sericeum

Ophryosporus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/973718-Ophryosporus-paradoxus

Plectocephalus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/910426-Plectocephalus-chilensis

Podanthus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/623453-Podanthus-ovatifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/715313-Podanthus-mitiqui

Polyachyrus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/563543-Polyachyrus-poeppigii

Proustia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/716497-Proustia-pyrifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/484839-Proustia-cuneifolia

Pseudognaphalium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/935223-Pseudognaphalium-viravira

Senecio
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/569080-Senecio-adenotrichius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/909782-Senecio-bahioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/888397-Senecio-nigrescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/805181-Senecio-poeppigii

Spinoliva
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1263919-Spinoliva-ilicifolia (foliar-spinescent?)

Tessaria
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/71230-Tessaria-absinthioides

Triptilion
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/793682-Triptilion-capillatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/793683-Triptilion-cordifolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/793684-Triptilion-gibbosum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/793685-Triptilion-spinosum (foliar-spinescent)

CALIFORNIA

Note: in cases where unstated in https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_index.php?index=E whether perennial or not, I have assumed perennial; 'possibly' refers to spp.

  • occurring at altitudes so high (>2000 m a.s.l.) that the climate may not qualify as mediterranean-type, or
  • typical of the semi-arid climate and penetrating the mediterranean-type climate perhaps only with anthropogenic disturbance.

Achillea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/52821-Achillea-millefolium

Achyranthemum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/950256-Achyranthemum-mucronatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/950255-Achyranthemum-paniculatum

Acourtia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/64115-Acourtia-microcephala

Adenocaulon
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/56854-Adenocaulon-bicolor

Ageratina
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75300-Ageratina-occidentalis

Agnorhiza
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/893767-Agnorhiza-bolanderi
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/893765-Agnorhiza-elata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/893764-Agnorhiza-invenusta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/893763-Agnorhiza-ovata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/893761-Agnorhiza-reticulata

Agoseris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58801-Agoseris-apargioides
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75302-Agoseris-aurantiaca
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75303-Agoseris-glauca
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/52828-Agoseris-grandiflora
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/61169-Agoseris-hirsuta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75304-Agoseris-monticola
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57908-Agoseris-retrorsa

Ambrosia
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75405-Ambrosia-ambrosioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/71135-Ambrosia-chamissonis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75406-Ambrosia-chenopodiifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75407-Ambrosia-confertiflora
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75408-Ambrosia-dumosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75411-Ambrosia-monogyra
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/60129-Ambrosia-psilostachya
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75412-Ambrosia-pumila
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75413-Ambrosia-salsola

Anaphalis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/52833-Anaphalis-margaritacea

Antennaria
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/53096-Antennaria-rosea

Arnica
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75568-Arnica-chamissonis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75569-Arnica-cordifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75570-Arnica-dealbata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/52851-Arnica-discoidea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75572-Arnica-lanceolata
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75573-Arnica-latifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75574-Arnica-longifolia
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75576-Arnica-nevadensis
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75578-Arnica-parryi
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1106832-Arnica-sonnei

Artemisia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artemisia_californica and https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/53357-Artemisia-californica
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/52854-Artemisia-douglasiana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/60952-Artemisia-pycnocephala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75598-Artemisia-tridentata

Baccharis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75727-Baccharis-glutinosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/53359-Baccharis-pilularis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57913-Baccharis-salicifolia

Bahiopsis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75736-Bahiopsis-laciniata

Balsamorhiza
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/62273-Balsamorhiza-careyana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/70383-Balsamorhiza-deltoidea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/69665-Balsamorhiza-macrolepis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/62266-Balsamorhiza-sagittata

Bebbia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75746-Bebbia-juncea

Brickellia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58803-Brickellia-californica
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75872-Brickellia-desertorum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/53501-Brickellia-eupatorioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75875-Brickellia-greenei
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57919-Brickellia-nevinii

Carlquistia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76131-Carlquistia-muirii

Centromadia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58804-Centromadia-fitchii (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58809-Centromadia-parryi (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/64209-Centromadia-pungens (foliar-spinescent?)

Chaenactis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/62682-Chaenactis-douglasii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76231-Chaenactis-parishii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76232-Chaenactis-santolinoides

Chrysothamnus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76329-Chrysothamnus-viscidiflorus

Cirsium
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/69971-Cirsium-andersonii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/55294-Cirsium-andrewsii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76343-Cirsium-arizonicum (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76347-Cirsium-cymosum (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76348-Cirsium-douglasii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/56866-Cirsium-fontinale
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76349-Cirsium-hydrophilum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/160614-Cirsium-loncholepis (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76351-Cirsium-mohavense
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/60954-Cirsium-quercetorum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76355-Cirsium-remotifolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76356-Cirsium-rhothophilum (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76357-Cirsium-scariosum (foliar-spinescent)

Corethrogyne
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58014-Corethrogyne-filaginifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/160908-Corethrogyne-leucophylla

Deinandra
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58815-Deinandra-clementina
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76616-Deinandra-minthornii

Dieteria
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76654-Dieteria-asteroides

Eastwoodia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57967-Eastwoodia-elegans

Encelia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/64141-Encelia-californica
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/49339-Encelia-farinosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57969-Encelia-actoni

Ericameria
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/63924-Ericameria-arborescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76879-Ericameria-bloomeri
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76880-Ericameria-brachylepis
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76881-Ericameria-cooperi
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57970-Ericameria-cuneata
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/60845-Ericameria-discoidea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/60955-Ericameria-ericoides (ericoid)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76882-Ericameria-fasciculata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76885-Ericameria-laricifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57971-Ericameria-linearifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76888-Ericameria-palmeri
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76889-Ericameria-paniculata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76890-Ericameria-parishii
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76891-Ericameria-parryi
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76892-Ericameria-pinifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76893-Ericameria-teretifolia

Erigeron
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76894-Erigeron-aequifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76898-Erigeron-aphanactis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76901-Erigeron-biolettii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76902-Erigeron-blochmaniae
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76905-Erigeron-breweri
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76914-Erigeron-coulteri
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/59752-Erigeron-divergens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76918-Erigeron-filifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57972-Erigeron-foliosus
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76920-Erigeron-glacialis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/50878-Erigeron-glaucus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76921-Erigeron-greenei
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76931-Erigeron-multiceps
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76922-Erigeron-inornatus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1390806-Erigeron-palosverdensis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76934-Erigeron-parishii
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/133922-Erigeron-peregrinus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76935-Erigeron-petrophilus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/67820-Erigeron-philadelphicus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/851881-Erigeron-popayanensis
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/162521-Erigeron-pubescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76938-Erigeron-reductus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76940-Erigeron-sanctarum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76941-Erigeron-serpentinus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/84732-Erigeron-speciosus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76944-Erigeron-supplex

Eriophyllum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/53395-Eriophyllum-confertiflorum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77048-Eriophyllum-jepsonii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77049-Eriophyllum-lanatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77051-Eriophyllum-latilobum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/60963-Eriophyllum-staechadifolium

Eucephalus
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77094-Eucephalus-breweri

Euthamia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/130989-Euthamia-graminifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58826-Euthamia-occidentalis

Gamochaeta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77224-Gamochaeta-ustulata

Grindelia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/56953-Grindelia-camporum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/55364-Grindelia-hirsutula
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/289540-Grindelia-robusta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/61992-Grindelia-stricta

Gutierrezia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57978-Gutierrezia-californica
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77311-Gutierrezia-microcephala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77312-Gutierrezia-sarothrae

Hazardia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/279762-Hazardia-berberidis (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77340-Hazardia-cana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77341-Hazardia-detonsa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77342-Hazardia-orcuttii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/64142-Hazardia-squarrosa (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57981-Hazardia-stenolepis
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77343-Hazardia-whitneyi

Helenium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/61807-Helenium-bigelovii
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77350-Helenium-bolanderi
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/53092-Helenium-puberulum

Helianthella
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/59922-Helianthella-californica
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/64250-Helianthella-castanea

Helianthus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/56954-Helianthus-californicus
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77354-Helianthus-cusickii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77356-Helianthus-gracilentus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/125699-Helianthus-mollis
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77358-Helianthus-niveus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77359-Helianthus-nuttallii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/704686-Helianthus-winteri

Heliomeris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77362-Heliomeris-multiflora

Heterotheca
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58831-Heterotheca-grandiflora
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77396-Heterotheca-oregona
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1351310-Heterotheca-orovillosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57988-Heterotheca-sessiliflora
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77397-Heterotheca-shevockii
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77398-Heterotheca-subaxillaris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77399-Heterotheca-villosa

Hieracium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/63937-Hieracium-albiflorum
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77413-Hieracium-bolanderi
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/163779-Hieracium-fendleri
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/128234-Hieracium-gronovii

Holocarpha
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/62571-Holocarpha-obconica

Hulsea
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77462-Hulsea-brevifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77464-Hulsea-heterochroma
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77467-Hulsea-vestita

Hymenoxys
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/49037-Hymenoxys-hoopesii

Isocoma
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57991-Isocoma-acradenia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77510-Isocoma-arguta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77511-Isocoma-menziesii

Iva
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58837-Iva-axillaris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77518-Iva-hayesiana

Jaumea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/60969-Jaumea-carnosa (succulent halophyte)

Lepidospartum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58010-Lepidospartum-squamatum

Leptosyne
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77709-Leptosyne-gigantea
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coreopsis_maritima

Lessingia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/119605-Lessingia-filaginifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77714-Lessingia-nana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77716-Lessingia-ramulosa

Malacothrix
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77936-Malacothrix-incana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77940-Malacothrix-saxatilis

Microseris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78036-Microseris-nutans
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/60976-Microseris-paludosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78037-Microseris-sylvatica

Oreostemma
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78280-Oreostemma-alpigenum

Packera
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78315-Packera-bernardina
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78316-Packera-bolanderi
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/56983-Packera-breweri
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78317-Packera-cana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78318-Packera-clevelandii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78319-Packera-eurycephala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78320-Packera-ganderi
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/61876-Packera-greenei
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78323-Packera-ionophylla
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78324-Packera-layneae
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78326-Packera-multilobata

Phalacroseris
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78533-Phalacroseris-bolanderi

Pilosella
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1183937-Pilosella-arguta
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/951187-Pilosella-horrida
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/780652-Pilosella-tristis

Pseudognaphalium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58829-Pseudognaphalium-biolettii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/53080-Pseudognaphalium-canescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78761-Pseudognaphalium-leucocephalum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78763-Pseudognaphalium-microcephalum
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78765-Pseudognaphalium-thermale

Pyrrocoma
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78795-Pyrrocoma-apargioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78800-Pyrrocoma-racemosa

Rafinesquia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/53193-Rafinesquia-californica (fire)

Raillardella
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78812-Raillardella-argentea
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78814-Raillardella-scaposa

Rudbeckia
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78896-Rudbeckia-californica

Senecio
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/53206-Senecio-aronicoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58847-Senecio-astephanus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79042-Senecio-blochmaniae
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79043-Senecio-clarkianus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58036-Senecio-flaccidus
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79045-Senecio-fremontii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/64165-Senecio-hydrophilus (aquatic)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79047-Senecio-integerrimus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79049-Senecio-lyonii
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79053-Senecio-scorzonella
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/54922-Senecio-serra
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79054-Senecio-spartioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79055-Senecio-triangularis

Solidago
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79149-Solidago-confinis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79150-Solidago-elongata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79151-Solidago-guiradonis
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79152-Solidago-lepida
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79153-Solidago-multiradiata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/60978-Solidago-spathulata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79155-Solidago-velutina

Stephanomeria
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/169376-Stephanomeria-blairii and https://www.calflora.org/app/taxon?crn=7787
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79213-Stephanomeria-cichoriacea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58039-Stephanomeria-exigua
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79215-Stephanomeria-lactucina
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79217-Stephanomeria-parryi
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58040-Stephanomeria-pauciflora
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79218-Stephanomeria-tenuifolia

Symphyotrichum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79294-Symphyotrichum-ascendens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/56861-Symphyotrichum-chilense
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79297-Symphyotrichum-defoliatum
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79295-Symphyotrichum-bracteolatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/56113-Symphyotrichum-foliaceum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79299-Symphyotrichum-greatae
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79301-Symphyotrichum-lanceolatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/129607-Symphyotrichum-laeve
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/60130-Symphyotrichum-lentum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79302-Symphyotrichum-spathulatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79303-Symphyotrichum-subspicatum

Tanacetum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79314-Tanacetum-bipinnatum

Tetraneuris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/132723-Tetraneuris-scaposa

Venegasia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/64109-Venegasia-carpesioides

Wyethia
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/50798-Wyethia-amplexicaulis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/56987-Wyethia-angustifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/50799-Wyethia-helenioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/56988-Wyethia-glabra
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/60843-Wyethia-mollis

SOUTH AFRICA

Achyranthemum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/950255-Achyranthemum-paniculatum

Amellus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579702-Amellus-alternifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579703-Amellus-asteroides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579704-Amellus-capensis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579711-Amellus-strigosus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579712-Amellus-tenuifolius

Anaxeton
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579808-Anaxeton-arborescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579809-Anaxeton-asperum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579810-Anaxeton-brevipes
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579811-Anaxeton-ellipticum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579812-Anaxeton-hirsutum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/532775-Anaxeton-laeve
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579813-Anaxeton-lundgrenii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579814-Anaxeton-nycthemerum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579815-Anaxeton-virgatum

Arctotheca
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/56024-Arctotheca-calendula
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580120-Arctotheca-forbesiana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580121-Arctotheca-marginata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/424293-Arctotheca-populifolia
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75549-Arctotheca-prostrata

Arctotis (see http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-82412022000100011 and https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0254629910001493 and https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/aspt/sb/2022/00000047/00000001/art00003 and https://bioone.org/journals/willdenowia/volume-48/issue-1/wi.48.48103/Nomenclatural-changes-and-typifications-of-Arctotis-species-Asteraceae-Arctotideae-from/10.3372/wi.48.48103.full)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/569425-Arctotis-acaulis
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580122-Arctotis-acuminata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/569427-Arctotis-adpressa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580124-Arctotis-angustifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580127-Arctotis-aspera
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580130-Arctotis-bellidifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/861919-Arctotis-breviscapa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580141-Arctotis-flaccida
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1136404-Arctotis-formosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580145-Arctotis-incisa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/861909-Arctotis-laciniata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1106475-Arctotis-muricata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580151-Arctotis-petiolata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/706337-Arctotis-reptans
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580153-Arctotis-revoluta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580155-Arctotis-rotundifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/867538-Arctotis-scabra
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580156-Arctotis-schlechteri
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/158585-Arctotis-stoechadifolia
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580161-Arctotis-subacaulis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/786088-Arctotis-verbascifolia

Artemisia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/342710-Artemisia-afra

Athanasia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580786-Athanasia-adenantha
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580790-Athanasia-calophylla
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580791-Athanasia-capitata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580793-Athanasia-crenata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580794-Athanasia-crithmifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580795-Athanasia-cuneifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/567825-Athanasia-dentata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580798-Athanasia-flexuosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/743385-Athanasia-gyrosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580800-Athanasia-hirsuta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580804-Athanasia-juncea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580805-Athanasia-leptocephala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580806-Athanasia-linifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580808-Athanasia-microphylla
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580810-Athanasia-oocephala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580811-Athanasia-pachycephala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580814-Athanasia-pubescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580815-Athanasia-quinquedentata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580816-Athanasia-rugulosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580817-Athanasia-scabra
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580818-Athanasia-sertulifera
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580819-Athanasia-spathulata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/527452-Athanasia-trifurcata

Berkheya
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581051-Berkheya-angusta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581053-Berkheya-armata (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581054-Berkheya-barbata (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581062-Berkheya-carlinifolia (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581067-Berkheya-coriacea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581074-Berkheya-dregei
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581084-Berkheya-herbacea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/159211-Berkheya-heterophylla (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581085-Berkheya-jardineana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581095-Berkheya-onobromoides (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/482821-Berkheya-rigida
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/533741-Berkheya-spinosa (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581111-Berkheya-tysonii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581066-Berkheya-chrysanthemoides (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581113-Berkheya-viscosa

Brachylaena
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/567699-Brachylaena-discolor
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/570556-Brachylaena-neriifolia

Capelio
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581732-Capelio-caledonica
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581733-Capelio-tabularis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581734-Capelio-tomentosa

Cineraria
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582252-Cineraria-alchemilloides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1377091-Cineraria-angulosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582263-Cineraria-erosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582265-Cineraria-geifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582269-Cineraria-lobata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582271-Cineraria-mollis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582276-Cineraria-platycarpa

Chrysocoma
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/524602-Chrysocoma-ciliata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/129068-Chrysocoma-coma-aurea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582233-Chrysocoma-esterhuyseniae
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582245-Chrysocoma-tridentata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582246-Chrysocoma-valida

Corymbium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582809-Corymbium-africanum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582810-Corymbium-congestum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582811-Corymbium-cymosum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582813-Corymbium-enerve
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582814-Corymbium-glabrum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582815-Corymbium-laxum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/577959-Corymbium-villosum

Cotula
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582819-Cotula-andreae
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582823-Cotula-ceniifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58812-Cotula-coronopifolia
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582825-Cotula-discolor
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582826-Cotula-duckittiae
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582827-Cotula-eckloniana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/190950-Cotula-filifolia
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/528766-Cotula-laxa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582832-Cotula-macroglossa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582833-Cotula-melaleuca
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582836-Cotula-montana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/190952-Cotula-myriophylloides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582837-Cotula-nigellifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582838-Cotula-nudicaulis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1119528-Cotula-perennans
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1119530-Cotula-pruinosa
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582843-Cotula-pusilla
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1119686-Cotula-sericea
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582846-Cotula-sororia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582848-Cotula-tenella

Cullumia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/533465-Cullumia-bisulca
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/567914-Cullumia-carlinoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/596620-Cullumia-ciliaris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583116-Cullumia-floccosa (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583117-Cullumia-micracantha (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583118-Cullumia-patula (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/578726-Cullumia-reticulata (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583121-Cullumia-selago (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/461732-Cullumia-setosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583122-Cullumia-sulcata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/567926-Cullumia-squarrosa

Curio https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/570733-Curio (foliar-succulent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/913201-Curio-acaulis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/913202-Curio-archeri
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1269341-Curio-cicatricosus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583123-Curio-citriformis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/913204-Curio-crassulifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/913212-Curio-radicans
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583125-Curio-repens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/570734-Curio-talinoides

Dicerothamnus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1200662-Dicerothamnus-adpressus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1200667-Dicerothamnus-rhinocerotis (particularly flammable)

Didelta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/514256-Didelta-carnosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/532463-Didelta-spinosa

Dimorphotheca
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/492559-Dimorphotheca-acutifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583826-Dimorphotheca-chrysanthemifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/566625-Dimorphotheca-cuneata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76660-Dimorphotheca-ecklonis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76661-Dimorphotheca-fruticosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583828-Dimorphotheca-montana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583833-Dimorphotheca-venusta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583834-Dimorphotheca-walliana

Disparago
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/584061-Disparago-anomala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/584062-Disparago-ericoides (ericoid)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/857521-Disparago-gongylodes
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/526194-Disparago-kraussii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/584063-Disparago-laxifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/857518-Disparago-pilosa

Edmondia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/584361-Edmondia-fasciculata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/569495-Edmondia-pinifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/553427-Edmondia-sesamoides

Eriocephalus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/430981-Eriocephalus-africanus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585312-Eriocephalus-aromaticus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585313-Eriocephalus-brevifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/570866-Eriocephalus-capitellatus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/467680-Eriocephalus-ericoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585331-Eriocephalus-punctulatus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/577563-Eriocephalus-racemosus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585336-Eriocephalus-tenuipes

Euryops (several spp. are ericoid)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/401791-Euryops-abrotanifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585693-Euryops-brevilobus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585700-Euryops-decipiens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585718-Euryops-hebecarpus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585720-Euryops-imbricatus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585721-Euryops-indecorus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585724-Euryops-lasiocladus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585725-Euryops-lateriflorus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585729-Euryops-linifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585730-Euryops-longipes
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/84982-Euryops-multifidus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585740-Euryops-othonnoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/347968-Euryops-pectinatus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/524456-Euryops-rehmannii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585748-Euryops-rupestris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585749-Euryops-serra
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585750-Euryops-speciosissimus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585752-Euryops-sulcatus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585753-Euryops-tagetoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585754-Euryops-tenuilobus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/524455-Euryops-tenuissimus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585755-Euryops-thunbergii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/533455-Euryops-virgineus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585762-Euryops-wageneri

Felicia
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585802-Felicia-aculeata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585803-Felicia-aethiopica
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/146915-Felicia-amelloides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/570419-Felicia-amoena
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/120049-Felicia-australis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585807-Felicia-bellidioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585812-Felicia-canaliculata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585815-Felicia-cymbalariae
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585816-Felicia-cymbalarioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585820-Felicia-dregei
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585821-Felicia-dubia
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585822-Felicia-ebracteata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585823-Felicia-echinata (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/119565-Felicia-elongata
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585826-Felicia-fascicularis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/401821-Felicia-fruticosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/528743-Felicia-filifolia
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585830-Felicia-hirsuta
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585831-Felicia-hirta
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585832-Felicia-hispida
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585833-Felicia-hyssopifolia
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585841-Felicia-merxmuelleri
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585844-Felicia-minima
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/569123-Felicia-muricata
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585847-Felicia-nigrescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585848-Felicia-nordenstamii

Gazania
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586167-Gazania-ciliaris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/119582-Gazania-krebsiana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586170-Gazania-lanata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586171-Gazania-maritima
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884843-Gazania-rigens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/120062-Gazania-rigida
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586174-Gazania-serrata
Check https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/567911-Gazania-pectinata

Gerbera
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586314-Gerbera-crocea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586316-Gerbera-grandis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586317-Gerbera-linnaei
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/473244-Gerbera-piloselloides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/570383-Gerbera-serrata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1120668-Gerbera-sinuata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586323-Gerbera-tomentosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586324-Gerbera-wrightii

Gymnodiscus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586666-Gymnodiscus-capillaris

Haplocarpha
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586753-Haplocarpha-lanata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586756-Haplocarpha-oocephala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586757-Haplocarpha-parvifolia

Helichrysum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586871-Helichrysum-asperum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586873-Helichrysum-aureofolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586877-Helichrysum-bachmannii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586884-Helichrysum-capense
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586885-Helichrysum-catipes
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586891-Helichrysum-cochleariforme
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586894-Helichrysum-crispum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586895-Helichrysum-cylindriflorum
check that this is perennial https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/342438-Helichrysum-cymosum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/545839-Helichrysum-dasyanthum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586901-Helichrysum-diffusum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586911-Helichrysum-excisum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/567568-Helichrysum-felinum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/163638-Helichrysum-foetidum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/569345-Helichrysum-fruticans
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586919-Helichrysum-grandiflorum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586923-Helichrysum-hamulosum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586926-Helichrysum-hebelepis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586927-Helichrysum-helianthemifolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586934-Helichrysum-incarnatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586947-Helichrysum-lambertianum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/533450-Helichrysum-lancifolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/570762-Helichrysum-litorale
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586960-Helichrysum-marifolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586969-Helichrysum-moeserianum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586980-Helichrysum-niveum
annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586981-Helichrysum-nudifolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586984-Helichrysum-odoratissimum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586994-Helichrysum-pandurifolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/578243-Helichrysum-patulum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586998-Helichrysum-pentzioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77361-Helichrysum-petiolare
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587001-Helichrysum-plebeium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587012-Helichrysum-retortum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/119485-Helichrysum-revolutum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587013-Helichrysum-rosum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587014-Helichrysum-rotundatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/578242-Helichrysum-rotundifolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/416492-Helichrysum-rutilans
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587018-Helichrysum-scabrum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587029-Helichrysum-spiralepis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587031-Helichrysum-stellatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587033-Helichrysum-stoloniferum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/426219-Helichrysum-teretifolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587043-Helichrysum-tinctum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587047-Helichrysum-tricostatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/533449-Helichrysum-zeyheri
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587058-Helichrysum-zwartbergense

Hymenolepis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587612-Hymenolepis-calva
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587613-Hymenolepis-crithmifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587615-Hymenolepis-dentata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587617-Hymenolepis-gnidioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587618-Hymenolepis-incisa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587620-Hymenolepis-speciosa

Ifloga
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/601947-Ifloga-ambigua
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587727-Ifloga-anomala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/704313-Ifloga-decumbens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1391564-Ifloga-repens
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587730-Ifloga-thellungiana

Macledium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589514-Macledium-latifolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589516-Macledium-spinosum (foliar-spinescent?)

Mairia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589557-Mairia-burchellii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/566735-Mairia-crenata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589558-Mairia-coriacea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/866009-Mairia-lasiocarpa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589561-Mairia-robusta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1377070-Mairia-purpurata

Metalasia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589904-Metalasia-acuta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589905-Metalasia-adunca
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589906-Metalasia-agathosmoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589907-Metalasia-albescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589908-Metalasia-alfredii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/570690-Metalasia-aurea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589909-Metalasia-bodkinii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589910-Metalasia-brevifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/527593-Metalasia-calcicola
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589911-Metalasia-capitata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589912-Metalasia-cephalotes
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589913-Metalasia-compacta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589914-Metalasia-confusa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589915-Metalasia-cymbifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589916-Metalasia-densa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589917-Metalasia-distans
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589918-Metalasia-divergens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589919-Metalasia-dregeana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589920-Metalasia-eburnea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589921-Metalasia-erectifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589922-Metalasia-erubescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589923-Metalasia-fastigiata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589926-Metalasia-helmei
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589927-Metalasia-humilis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589928-Metalasia-inversa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589929-Metalasia-juniperoides (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589930-Metalasia-lichtensteinii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589932-Metalasia-massonii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589934-Metalasia-muraltiifolia (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/527592-Metalasia-muricata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589937-Metalasia-oligocephala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589936-Metalasia-octoflora
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589939-Metalasia-phillipsii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589940-Metalasia-plicata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589941-Metalasia-pulchella
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/567826-Metalasia-pungens (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589945-Metalasia-quinqueflora
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589946-Metalasia-rhoderoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589947-Metalasia-riparia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589948-Metalasia-rogersii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589949-Metalasia-seriphiifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589950-Metalasia-serrata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589951-Metalasia-serrulata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589953-Metalasia-tenuifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589954-Metalasia-tenuis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589958-Metalasia-umbelliformis

Myrovernix
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1200663-Myrovernix-glandulosus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1200665-Myrovernix-gnaphaloides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1391558-Myrovernix-intricata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1200657-Myrovernix-longifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1200666-Myrovernix-scaber

Nidorella (check for annuals)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590626-Nidorella-foetida
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590627-Nidorella-hottentotica
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/847544-Nidorella-ivifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/847557-Nidorella-pinnata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/847558-Nidorella-pinnatifida
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/847556-Nidorella-ulmifolia

Oedera
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884775-Oedera-calycina
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/569864-Oedera-capensis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884796-Oedera-corymbosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590713-Oedera-epaleacea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590714-Oedera-foveolata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884800-Oedera-fruticosa (ericoid)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884766-Oedera-garnotii (ericoid)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/524508-Oedera-genistifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884795-Oedera-humilis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/567141-Oedera-imbricata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884771-Oedera-longipes
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884772-Oedera-montana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590717-Oedera-multipunctata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884774-Oedera-pungens (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884801-Oedera-relhanioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884799-Oedera-rotundifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590720-Oedera-sedifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590721-Oedera-silicicola
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884797-Oedera-spathulifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884776-Oedera-speciosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/524617-Oedera-squarrosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884798-Oedera-tricephala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590723-Oedera-uniflora (ericoid)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590724-Oedera-viscosa

Oncosiphon
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590774-Oncosiphon-africanus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590778-Oncosiphon-sabulosus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590775-Oncosiphon-grandiflorus

Osmitopsis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590958-Osmitopsis-afra
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/447652-Osmitopsis-asteriscoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590959-Osmitopsis-dentata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590960-Osmitopsis-glabra
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590961-Osmitopsis-nana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590962-Osmitopsis-osmitoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590963-Osmitopsis-parvifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590964-Osmitopsis-pinnatifida
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590965-Osmitopsis-tenuis

Osteospermum
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/61409-Osteospermum-acanthospermum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/61412-Osteospermum-aciphyllum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590971-Osteospermum-australe
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590972-Osteospermum-bidens
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590974-Osteospermum-breviradiatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590976-Osteospermum-calcicola
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/165983-Osteospermum-calendulaceum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590977-Osteospermum-ciliatum
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590978-Osteospermum-connatum
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590981-Osteospermum-dentatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590985-Osteospermum-grandiflorum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590986-Osteospermum-hafstroemii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590989-Osteospermum-hispidum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590991-Osteospermum-ilicifolium
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590992-Osteospermum-imbricatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/596722-Osteospermum-incanum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/570559-Osteospermum-junceum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/404420-Osteospermum-moniliferum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590996-Osteospermum-monstrosum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591004-Osteospermum-polygaloides
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591008-Osteospermum-rigidum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591010-Osteospermum-rotundifolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/524504-Osteospermum-scariosum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591012-Osteospermum-sinuatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591016-Osteospermum-spinosum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/527497-Osteospermum-subulatum
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591019-Osteospermum-tomentosum

Othonna (needs further checking for annuals)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591061-Othonna-arborescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591062-Othonna-arbuscula
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/528774-Othonna-auriculifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591065-Othonna-bulbosa (geophytic?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591067-Othonna-cacalioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591070-Othonna-ciliata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591071-Othonna-coronopifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591073-Othonna-cuneata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/570576-Othonna-dentata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591076-Othonna-digitata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1159917-Othonna-globosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/528601-Othonna-gymnodiscus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591085-Othonna-hederifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591087-Othonna-heterophylla
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591088-Othonna-humilis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591089-Othonna-intermedia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591092-Othonna-leptodactyla
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1412294-Othonna-linearifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591095-Othonna-lyrata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591100-Othonna-multicaulis
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591103-Othonna-oleracea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/568344-Othonna-parviflora
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591110-Othonna-perfoliata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591111-Othonna-petiolaris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/560261-Othonna-pinnata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1039759-Othonna-pumilio
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591117-Othonna-quercifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/568345-Othonna-quinquedentata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591119-Othonna-ramulosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591121-Othonna-retrofracta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591122-Othonna-retrorsa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1041010-Othonna-rotundiloba
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591128-Othonna-spinescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591129-Othonna-stenophylla
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591135-Othonna-undulosa (geophytic?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591136-Othonna-viminea

Petalacte
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591862-Petalacte-coronata

Phaenocoma
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/514327-Phaenocoma-prolifera

Plecostachys
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/592211-Plecostachys-polifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78625-Plecostachys-serpyllifolia

Polyarrhena
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/592318-Polyarrhena-imbricata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/592320-Polyarrhena-reflexa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/592321-Polyarrhena-stricta

Printzia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/592461-Printzia-aromatica
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/568146-Printzia-polifolia

Pteronia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/524304-Pteronia-incana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/524365-Pteronia-fasciculata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/592711-Pteronia-paniculata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/592698-Pteronia-hirsuta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/592685-Pteronia-divaricata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/899719-Pteronia-aspera
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/592725-Pteronia-uncinata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/592722-Pteronia-tenuifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/592709-Pteronia-onobromoides

Senecio
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594169-Senecio-abbreviatus (foliar-succulent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594175-Senecio-agapetes
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594178-Senecio-albifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594180-Senecio-aloides (foliar-succulent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/363595-Senecio-angulatus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594182-Senecio-angustifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594186-Senecio-arabidifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594187-Senecio-arenarius
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594188-Senecio-arniciflorus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594195-Senecio-bipinnatus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594200-Senecio-bulbinifolius (foliar-succulent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/569496-Senecio-burchellii
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594202-Senecio-cadiscus (semi-aquatic)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/552249-Senecio-canaliculatus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594205-Senecio-cardaminifolius
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594207-Senecio-carroensis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594210-Senecio-chrysocoma
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594211-Senecio-cinerascens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594213-Senecio-coleophyllus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594217-Senecio-cordifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/487098-Senecio-crassiusculus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/944862-Senecio-cymbalarifolius
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594238-Senecio-erosus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/553425-Senecio-erubescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594245-Senecio-foeniculoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/336367-Senecio-glastifolius (https://nre.tas.gov.au/Documents/Hollyleavedsenecio_CRC_wmg.pdf)
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594253-Senecio-glutinosus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/336368-Senecio-grandiflorus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594256-Senecio-halimifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594258-Senecio-hastatus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/567863-Senecio-hastifolius (tuberous)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/568317-Senecio-ilicifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/55607-Senecio-inaequidens
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594273-Senecio-incertus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594282-Senecio-junceus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/568096-Senecio-lanceus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594291-Senecio-leptophyllus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594294-Senecio-lineatus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594298-Senecio-lycopodioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/327643-Senecio-macroglossus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/464399-Senecio-maritimus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594304-Senecio-matricariifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594323-Senecio-odontopterus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594328-Senecio-paarlensis
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594331-Senecio-paniculatus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594339-Senecio-pillansii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594341-Senecio-pinifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594342-Senecio-pinnatifidus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/487097-Senecio-pinnulatus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/487096-Senecio-pterophorus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594353-Senecio-purpureus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594352-Senecio-pubigerus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594357-Senecio-rehmannii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594360-Senecio-retortus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594364-Senecio-rigidus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594365-Senecio-robertiifolius
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594366-Senecio-rosmarinifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594367-Senecio-ruwenzoriensis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/119544-Senecio-sarcoides (foliar-succulent)
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594378-Senecio-sophioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594379-Senecio-speciosissimus (https://pza.sanbi.org/senecio-speciosissimus)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/569624-Senecio-speciosus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594380-Senecio-spiraeifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594383-Senecio-subcanescens
Senecio stella-purpurea (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333855230_A_new_localised_species_of_purple_radiate_Senecio_Asteraceae_Senecioneae_from_the_Sneeuberg_massif_South_Africa)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/363597-Senecio-tamoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594394-Senecio-tortuosus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594404-Senecio-umbellatus
Senecio umbricola https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0254629908003220
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594408-Senecio-variifolius
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594410-Senecio-verbascifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594411-Senecio-vestitus

Seriphium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/873820-Seriphium-burchellii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594443-Seriphium-incanum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/431651-Seriphium-plumosum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594442-Seriphium-cinereum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594444-Seriphium-saxatilis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594445-Seriphium-spirale

Stoebe
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/569377-Stoebe-aethiopica
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/574599-Stoebe-capitata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594840-Stoebe-cyathuloides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594841-Stoebe-fusca (ericoid)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594842-Stoebe-gomphrenoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594845-Stoebe-montana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594847-Stoebe-nervigera
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594849-Stoebe-prostrata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594850-Stoebe-rosea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594851-Stoebe-rugulosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594852-Stoebe-schultzii

Syncarpha
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595035-Syncarpha-affinis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595037-Syncarpha-argyropsis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/320169-Syncarpha-canescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595040-Syncarpha-dregeana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595041-Syncarpha-dykei
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/447044-Syncarpha-eximia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595043-Syncarpha-flava
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/471312-Syncarpha-gnaphaloides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595044-Syncarpha-lepidopodium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595045-Syncarpha-loganiana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595046-Syncarpha-marlothii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/119221-Syncarpha-speciosissima
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595051-Syncarpha-staehelina
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595053-Syncarpha-variegata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/553430-Syncarpha-vestita
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595054-Syncarpha-virgata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595055-Syncarpha-zeyheri

Tarchonanthus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/474039-Tarchonanthus-camphoratus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595129-Tarchonanthus-littoralis

Ursinia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595888-Ursinia-abrotanifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595890-Ursinia-anethoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/489478-Ursinia-cakilefolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/574899-Ursinia-caledonica
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595893-Ursinia-calenduliflora
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595894-Ursinia-chrysanthemoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595895-Ursinia-coronopifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595896-Ursinia-dentata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595897-Ursinia-discolor
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595898-Ursinia-dregeana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595899-Ursinia-eckloniana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595900-Ursinia-filipes
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595903-Ursinia-heterodonta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595907-Ursinia-macropoda
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595908-Ursinia-merxmuelleri
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595911-Ursinia-nudicaulis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595912-Ursinia-oreogena
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595914-Ursinia-pilifera
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595915-Ursinia-pinnata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595916-Ursinia-punctata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595918-Ursinia-quinquepartita
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595919-Ursinia-rigidula
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595921-Ursinia-scariosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595922-Ursinia-sericea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/574150-Ursinia-serrata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/578040-Ursinia-speciosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595923-Ursinia-subflosculosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595924-Ursinia-tenuifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595926-Ursinia-trifida
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595913-Ursinia-paleacea

Zyrphelis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/972730-Zyrphelis-ciliaris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1099478-Zyrphelis-corymbosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/596448-Zyrphelis-ecklonis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/596450-Zyrphelis-glabra
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/596451-Zyrphelis-glandulosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/962293-Zyrphelis-leiocarpa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/596456-Zyrphelis-montana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/596455-Zyrphelis-microcephala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/596457-Zyrphelis-nervosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/596459-Zyrphelis-taxifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/596449-Zyrphelis-foliosa

SOUTH AUSTRALIA

Acanthocladium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/634496-Acanthocladium-dockeri (stem-spinescent)

Angianthus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1089581-Angianthus-preissianus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/535389-Angianthus-tomentosus

Apalochlamys
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/399614-Apalochlamys-spectabilis

Argentipallium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/631268-Argentipallium-blandowskianum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/353953-Argentipallium-obtusifolium

Calocephalus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/470757-Calocephalus-citreus and https://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Calocephalus~citreus

Cassinia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/210574-Cassinia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/550323-Cassinia-complanata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/856226-Cassinia-laevis
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/979425-Cassinia-uncata

Chrysocephalum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/244345-Chrysocephalum-apiculatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/244465-Chrysocephalum-semipapposum

Coronidium
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/560705-Coronidium-gunnianum

Euchiton
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/323115-Euchiton-collinus

Helichrysum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/353939-Helichrysum-leucopsideum

Ixodia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/533318-Ixodia-achillaeoides

Kippistia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/634240-Kippistia-suaedifolia

Lagenophora
annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1238780-Lagenophora-gunniana
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/323152-Lagenophora-stipitata

Leucophyta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/323827-Leucophyta-brownii

Microseris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1132139-Microseris-walteri

Minuria
http://flora.sa.gov.au/cgi-bin/speciesfacts_display.cgi?genus=Minuria&species=cunninghamii
http://flora.sa.gov.au/cgi-bin/speciesfacts_display.cgi?genus=Minuria&species=integerrima
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/634286-Minuria-leptophylla and http://flora.sa.gov.au/cgi-bin/speciesfacts_display.cgi?genus=Minuria&species=leptophylla

Olearia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/428475-Olearia-axillaris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/920259-Olearia-brachyphylla
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/921413-Olearia-calcarea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/790933-Olearia-ciliata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1062511-Olearia-decurrens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/701015-Olearia-grandiflora
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/553374-Olearia-lanuginosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/735459-Olearia-lepidophylla
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/787671-Olearia-magniflora
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/787696-Olearia-muelleri
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/553609-Olearia-pannosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/787686-Olearia-passerinoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/788285-Olearia-picridifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/733631-Olearia-pimeleoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/792590-Olearia-tubuliflora

Ozothamnus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1322581-Ozothamnus-decurrens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/321191-Ozothamnus-diosmifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/971807-Ozothamnus-retusus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/602537-Ozothamnus-turbinatus

Senecio
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/353931-Senecio-pinnatifolius
(previously named Senecio 'lautus', http://flora.sa.gov.au/cgi-bin/speciesfacts_display.cgi?form=speciesfacts&name=Senecio_lautus)

Sonchus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/903022-Sonchus-megalocarpus

Vittadinia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/481355-Vittadinia-blackii
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/406979-Vittadinia-dissecta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/406989-Vittadinia-gracilis

Xerochrysum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/511273-Xerochrysum-macranthum

WESTERN AUSTRALIA

Angianthus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1251023-Angianthus-cunninghamii
possibly Angianthus preissianus https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/64784983

Argentipallium
https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/13327 and https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/854468-Argentipallium-niveum
https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/13329 and https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/854471-Argentipallium-tephrodes

Cratystylis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/550026-Cratystylis-conocephala

Helichrysum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/353939-Helichrysum-leucopsideum

Kippistia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/634240-Kippistia-suaedifolia and https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/8094

Lagenophora
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/511242-Lagenophora-huegelii
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1319068-Lagenophora-platysperma

Leucophyta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/323827-Leucophyta-brownii

Minuria
https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/8110

Olearia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/428475-Olearia-axillaris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/790933-Olearia-ciliata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1347866-Olearia-imbricata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1006063-Olearia-lehmanniana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/735459-Olearia-lepidophylla
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/787696-Olearia-muelleri
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/713617-Olearia-paucidentata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1307906-Olearia-revoluta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/511257-Olearia-rudis

Ozothamnus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1307129-Ozothamnus-lepidophyllus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1352663-Ozothamnus-blackallii

Pembertonia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/908163-Pembertonia-latisquamea

Pithocarpa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/511279-Pithocarpa-cordata

Senecio
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/353931-Senecio-pinnatifolius

Sonchus
Sonchus megalocarpus (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actites)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/903022-Sonchus-megalocarpus

Vittadinia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/481355-Vittadinia-blackii

Xerochrysum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/511273-Xerochrysum-macranthum

To be continued in https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/73371-how-convergent-are-perennial-daisies-in-mediterranean-type-climates-part-2#...

Posted on December 10, 2022 11:34 AM by milewski milewski

Comments

Posted by milewski about 1 year ago
Posted by milewski about 1 year ago

Marginal to mediterranean-type climate in Western Australia: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/79581942

Posted by milewski about 1 year ago

Check Calocephalus for perennials

Posted by milewski about 1 year ago

@tonyrebelo
Could you please comment on the spp. of Dimorphotheca listed in this Post, as to whether they are perennial or annual/biennial?

Posted by milewski about 1 year ago

I assume that the following species is annual:
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585688-Euryops-annulus.

Posted by milewski about 1 year ago
Posted by milewski about 1 year ago

In the Cape Flora the following are annuals: all the rest are perennials. Beware Dimorphotheca senso lato or stricto.
annuals in the Cape Flora:
pinnata, pluvialis, sinuata. (other 8 perennials).

Posted by tonyrebelo about 1 year ago

@tonyrebelo Many thanks for this useful information.

Posted by milewski about 1 year ago

Yes, the mentioned Chaetanthera species are all annuals.

You can check the other species with this key:

https://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de/11538/1/Davies_Alison.pdf

-> page 133

Posted by kai_schablewski about 1 year ago

@kai_schablewski

Many thanks for this impressive thesis, which is most helpful.

Posted by milewski about 1 year ago
Posted by milewski about 1 year ago

For Californian species, the on-line version of the Jepson Manual will state the annual/biannual/perennial habit.
https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/

Posted by catchang about 1 year ago

@catchang Many thanks for your most helpful suggestion. I have made corrections accordingly.

Posted by milewski about 1 year ago

Minuria cunninghamii is at best marginal to the mediterranean-type climate in Western Australia: https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/8107.

Posted by milewski about 1 year ago

Is this species indigenous to Chile?
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/424162-Solidago-chilensis

If so, this is a genus naturally shared between California and Chile.

Posted by milewski about 1 year ago

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