May 13, 2019

Species Plantarum Programme

Posted on May 13, 2019 13:50 by blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comments | Leave a comment

April 17, 2019

Phelipanche nana vs ramosa vs mutelii

Phelipanche nana from P. ramosa and P. mutelii is surely osften challenging and they have been sometimes misidentified.
In particular, many observations of P. ramosa from North America seem to be more fitting with P. nana.

This is a key that could turn out to be useful for the users:

1) Corolla upper outline not or only slightly gibbous (lower and upper outlines nearly parallel towards corolla gorge). Flowers erecto-patent: P. mutelii.

1a) Corolla upper outline distinctly gibbous. Flowers erecto-patent or spreading: 2.

2) Calyx teeth as long as or shorter than calyx tube, narrowly triangular. Flowers erecto-patent. Stem often branched. Corolla light blue to whitish. Parasitizing cultivated plants: P. ramosa.

2a) Calyx teeth longer than calyx tube, subulate. Flowers spreading. Stem rarely branched. Corolla blue, rarely light blue or whitish. Parasitizing wild plants: P. nana.

N.B. in order to observe the "calyx teeth" character, it would be useful to detach the flower from the inflorescence, to remove the bract and to photograph the calyx with a macro lens or under a stereomicroscope.

Sources:
- Holoparasitic Orobanchaceae (Cistanche, Diphelypaea, Orobanche, Phelipanche) in Armenia: distribution, habitats, host range and taxonomic problems.
https://biotaxa.org/Phytotaxa/article/view/phytotaxa.386.1.1

- Más, a propósito de algunas Phelipanche Pomel, Boulardia F. W. Schultz y Orobanche L. (Orobanchaceae) del oeste del Paleártico. Documentos Jard Bot Atlántico (Gijón) 6: 1-128
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268809711_Mas_a_proposito_de_algunas_Phelipanche_Pomel_Boulardia_F_W_Schultz_y_Orobanche_L_Orobanchaceae_del_oeste_del_Paleartico_Documentos_Jard_Bot_Atlantico_Gijon_61-128

- Phelipanche mutelii in Index of Orobanchaceae
http://www.farmalierganes.com/Flora/Angiospermae/Orobanchaceae/Phelipanche/Phelipanche_mutelii/Phelipanche_mutelii.htm

- Phelipanche nana in Index of Orobanchaceae
http://www.farmalierganes.com/Flora/Angiospermae/Orobanchaceae/Phelipanche/Phelipanche_nana/Phelipanche_nana.htm

- Phelipanche ramosa in Index of Orobanchaceae
http://www.farmalierganes.com/Flora/Angiospermae/Orobanchaceae/Phelipanche/Phelipanche_ramosa/Phelipanche_ramosa.htm

Posted on April 17, 2019 19:52 by blue_celery blue_celery | 5 comments | Leave a comment

April 11, 2019

Iridaceae presenti in Italia Iridaceae Present in Italy

Iridaceae presenti in Italia Iridaceae Present in Italy:
www.editricesapienza.it/sites/default/files/4679_Colasante_Iridaceae.pdf

Posted on April 11, 2019 21:10 by blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comments | Leave a comment

April 10, 2019

Willows of Russia and Adjacent Countries.

Willows of Russia and Adjacent Countries. Skvortsov 1999
http://172.104.19.75/announcements/skv/skvortsov.pdf

Posted on April 10, 2019 19:38 by blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comments | Leave a comment

January 30, 2019

European broomrapes: how to ask for an identification

Often broomrapes are really challenging as far as their identification is concerned because many related taxa share high similarities as well as they are often highly variable.
This is a brief guide that could allow an easier identification.

1) Species growing in their proximity. Broomrapes are obligate parasite that feed on other plants and it is known that certain species of broomrapes feed only on certain hosts. Thus, it is important to know which are the species that grow in their proximity since they could be the host.

2) Habit: it is important to observe the whole plant because the inflorescence:stem ratio may be diagnostic. Some species often show branched stem. Some species usually grow as dense clusters, some others are more aften found as single stems.

3) Stem: it can be either stout or thinner.

4) Leaves: they are scale-like and their shape and density can be sometimes useful for the identification.

5.1) Inflorescence shape: it can be either dense or with sparse flowers. Inflorescence apex can be either pointed or more or less rounded and sometimes, due to the presence of lonf bracts, it has a comose appearance.

5.2) Orientation of flowers: it can be either spreading or erecto-patent ot more or less directed upwards.

6.1) Bracts: they can be either longer or shorter than corolla as well as either lanceolate or narrower and more or less linear. In Boulardia latisquama they are particularly large.

6.2) Bracteoles: the genus Phelipanche is characterized by the presence of a pair of narrow bracteoles which are lacking in Orobanche sensu stricto and Boulardia.

7) Calyx: it is often divided up to the base but in few cases it is entire at base and more or less tubular. It has one or to (exceptionally more) laciniae at each side. The ratio corolla:calyx is often diagnostic. Also the shape of the calyx laciniae is often important since they can be either narrowly triangular or even narrower and subulate.

8) Corolla. Diagnostic features:
- length (to be measured with millimeter paper)
- upper outline (more or less straight or curved) to be observed from the side
- enlarged at base, with a constriction in the middle, enlarged at apex, narrower close to the apex to be observed from top view
- base: straight, geniculate (bent in lower third) or gradually curved
- outline of the apex: with pointing forward lobes or campanulate to be observed from the side and from top view
- upper lip: pointing forward or upward; entire or emarginate, with entire margin or dentate
- lower lip: pointing forward or downward; with entire margin or dentate, with central lobes larger than the lateral ones or more or less all alike

9) Stigma: sometimes stigma color may be helpful as well as if it is well exerted from corolla gorge

10) Stamens. Diagnostic feature such as the point of attachment at corolla is to be measure from corolla base

11) Hairiness: the kind of hairiness must be observed with attentionj of every part of the plant (e. g. Orobanche pubescens is rather easily distinguished from the related species for the presence of very long hairs on corolla upper side)

12) Color: also the color of varius parts of the plant must be observed even though broomrapes often show high variability. Anyway, there are species that are never, for example, yellow or other species that always have a blue corolla.

NB: broomrapes that have dried out are extremely difficult to be identified

Posted on January 30, 2019 22:36 by blue_celery blue_celery | 4 comments | Leave a comment

October 15, 2018

On the importance of raising awareness of properly tagging observations of cultivated plants in Europe

iNaturalist is undoubtedly a site with immense potential.
Unfortunately, many users do not take care to read and put into practice the recommendations contained in the site instructions. Thus, many observations of cultivated plants are posted untagged.
Many of these users are simply new and have still not understood that iNaturalist is not a gardening website, others are simply superficial.
I believe we all could spend some time raising awareness among users who post pictures of cultivated plants without the proper tag.
I have already started doing this with the observations from Italy. Of course I cannot deal with all observations from Europe on my own.
I propose you to use a standard form to be translated in various European languages.

Posted on October 15, 2018 17:03 by blue_celery blue_celery | 30 comments | Leave a comment

September 08, 2018

Solanum "Morelloid Clade" (S. nigrum, S. villosum, S. americanum etc...)

The species belonging to the so-called "Morelloid Clade" have never been so easy to identify. Here they are two revisions that can be helpful for this purpose:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6070582/pdf/phytokeys-106-001.pdf

https://www.bioversityinternational.org/fileadmin/_migrated/uploads/tx_news/Black_nightshades__Solanum_nigrum_L._and_related_species_337.pdf

Posted on September 08, 2018 06:47 by blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comments | Leave a comment

June 03, 2018

I post photos then I exist

I post photos then I exist.
This is what I have come to think after having seen the tons of photos of cultivated plants and animals in captivity posted every day on iNaturalist. This would not be a problem if this peculiar kind of users (this definition aims at trying to be extremely polite and politically correct) would make the effort to check the box "cultivated/in captivity". I this would be done, the users that are not interested in these garbage posts could exclude them just by checking the box "wild" when looking for observations.
In many case it is just because the "I post photos then I exist" users are new and unaware of the guidelines, in other cases just checking that box seems to be far from their reach or, simply, they are so superficial not having noticed that the site is dedicated to wild living beings.
I have the feeling that this is a losing "battle" and that all these generalist observations of non-wild beings will worsen the quality of the site.

Posted on June 03, 2018 19:43 by blue_celery blue_celery | 6 comments | Leave a comment

May 06, 2018

Wild roses of the Euromediterranean area: how to identify them

Wild roses are among the most critical taxa as far as their identification is concerned.
Usually just one photo does not allow to provide an identification.
Flowering plants are often more difficult to identify than fruiting ones.

Here a list of characters that should be photographed (or observed) for the identification:

1) Hairs on leaves lower side:
i) glabrous; ii) only glandular hairs; iii) only non-glandular hairs; iv) both glandular and non-glandular hairs; v) scattered glandular hairs only on veins

2) Leaves marginal teeth:
i) simple or some with only one small tooth behind; ii) compound, each with a stalked glandular hair at apex.

3) Rachys:
i) glabrous; ii) only glandular hairs; iii) only non-glandular hairs; iv) both glandular and non-glandular hairs

4) Leaves surface:
i) glossy; ii) dull

5) Sepals:
- at frutification:
i) reflexed or, rarely, spreading, early caducous; ii) erect to ercto-patent, rarely spreading, persistent at frutification.

- shape:
i) heteromorph: the outer ones well laciniate; ii) honomorph: all undivided or, rarely, the eouter ones with few small laciniae.
i) long-pointed in a narrow apex; ii) narrowly triangular but not long-pointed; iii) short, ovate and abruptly contracted

- hairs:
i) glabrous on outer surface; ii) with glandular hairs on outer surface.

6) Styles:
- shape:
i) free and forming a sort of cushion that is usually sessile or short-stalked, well shorter than stamens; ii) united and forming a column much longer than stigma and longer than inner stamens

- hairs:
i) glabrous of nearly so; ii) hairy

7) Pedicels:
- hairs:
i) glandular hairs present; ii) glandular hairs absent

- pedicel to bract ration:
i) pedicel > bract; ii) pedicel < bract

8) Spines:
i) More or less all homomorph; ii) distincly heteromorph
i) with broad base and curved; ii) slender or rubust with narrow or rather broad base but straight or almost so
i) scattered; ii) dense; iii) absent or present in lower part

9) Petals:
i) pure white; ii) light pink; iii) deep pink; iv) red; v) pink with whitish base

10) Fruits:
- shape:
i) longer than broad; ii) much longer than broad; iii) globose or subglobose

- colour when mature:
i) red; ii) blackish

- hairs:
i) glabrous; ii) with glandular, long-stalked, often rigid, hairs

11) Habit:
i) large bushy plants; ii) small montane bushes; iii) creeping or climbing plants

12) Orifice:
i) diameter at frutification

13) Stem:
i) glabrous; ii) hairy
i) pruinose; ii) non-pruinose or almost so

14) Habitat:
i) high montane op to alpine habitats; ii) planitial to submontane habitats

Posted on May 06, 2018 08:06 by blue_celery blue_celery | 0 comments | Leave a comment

May 02, 2018

Anagallis foemina vs Anagallis arvensis

How to distinguish Anagallis foemina and Anagallis arvensis:

1a - Petals red or blue, obtuse or truncate at apex. Glandular hairs on petals margin many and dense, 3-celled: A. arvensis.

1b - Petals blue, often subacute at apex. Glandular hairs on petals margin lacking or few and scattered, 4-celled: A. foemina.

Posted on May 02, 2018 17:57 by blue_celery blue_celery | 2 observations | 3 comments | Leave a comment